Cryptocurrency Glossary

51% AttackWhen one or a group of miners control greater than 50% of the network's mining hashrate or computational power.
Ad HocOnly created or done when necessary.
AddressUsed to send and received transactions. Often a user's public key
AirdropA free distribution of a coin to potential users
AlgorithmA sequence of unambiguous instructions used for the purpose of solving a problem.
All or None Order (AON)An order that must be executed in its entirity or not executed at all.
All-Time High (ATH)The highest price of a cryptocurrency in a base currency, such as a dollar, BTC, ETH, or BNB
AllocationPercentage distribution of tokens. For example a project may allocate 40% of tokens to their team.
AlphaA first look at a product released by a team to get feedback, usually in a less mature state than in beta.
AltcoinA cryptocurrency that is alternative to Bitcoin. Used to describe cryptocurrencies that are not Bitcoin.
Anti Money Laundering (AML)A framework consisting of legal and regulatory procedures to minimize and curb the flow of funds that are generated from illegal or dubious activities.
Application Programming Interface (API)A collection of functions and procedures that allow users to interact/communicate with the data of an application or service, such as an exchange, to execute the features of the service programmatically.
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)An Integrated Circuit customized for maximum performance in a particular use, rather than general-purpose use.
ArbitrageBuying and selling of assets over different markets in order to take advantage of differing prices on the same asset.
ASIC-resistantAchieved by requiring a large amount of memory when mining. This means that additional physical area is needed on the chip. As a result an ASIC would experience no significant speed increase.
Asking PriceLowest price a seller is willing to accept on a sell order.
AsynchronousDoes not occur at the same time.
Atomic SwapSmart contract technology that enables exchange of one cryptocurrency for another without using centralized intermediaries, such as exchanges.
Attack surfaceDifferent points in software environments where an attacker can attempt to enter data or extract data.
BagsThe portfolio of altcoins one is holding
BatchingProcessing transactions in a group.
BearA negative trend in prices of a market
Bear TrapA false signal that there has been a reversal in a rising price trend.
BenchmarkMeasuring performance of one thing by comparing it with another.
BetaAn early access program for users to test out a product and for a team to get feedback.
Bid PriceThe price at which a buyer is willing to pay for an asset, security or commodity.
Bitcoin DominanceThe ratio of Bitcoin's market capitalization versus the sum of the market capitalizations of all cryptocurrencies.
Bitcoin PizzaThe infamous Papa John's Pizza that cost Laszlo Hanyecz 10,000 Bitcoin when he offered the sum to anyone who bought a pizza for him online and ordered it to his door.
Black Swan EventAn event that is often unexpected and deviates from the expected result.
BlockFiles that store transaction data which is permanently recorded on a Blockchain. When a new transaction is created on a Blockchain, it is added to a block along with other new transactions. Once a block is added to a Blockchain, it is immutable.
Block ExplorerAn online Blockchain webpage which allows users to browse information about blocks, transactions, balances, and transaction histories.
Block HeightThe number of blocks in the chain between itself and the genesis block.
Block RewardCoins awarded by the blockchain network to cryptocurrency miners for each solved block.
BlockchainA decentralized, digitized ledger that records transaction information about a cryptocurrency in a chronological order.
Bollinger BandA Technical Analysis tool. Volatility bands above and below a simple moving average. The wider the bands are, the more volatile a market is at that time.
BountyA reward posted by a group or individual to incentivize certain work, behavior (such as referrals), or development.
Breakeven MultipleThe multiple of the current price by which an asset needs to appreciate in order to reach its previous all-time high
Broker-DealerAn individual or company that trades securities for itself or on behalf of customers.
BUIDLDerived from HODL, a term referring to keeping your heads down and focusing on building your product.
BullA positive trend in prices of a market
Bull TrapA false signal that there has been a reversal in a falling price trend.
BurnThe process of removing coins or tokens from circulation permanently, reducing the total supply.
Business-to-Business (B2B)A type of project that is serving enterprise needs.
Business-to-Business-to-Consumer (B2B2C)A type of project that utilizes business, groups, or other organizers to reach a larger audience of individual end users.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C)A type of project that caters to individual end users.
Buy The Dip (BTD)A term used to describe purchasing more of a cryptocurrency when the price falls.
Buy WallA large buy order or many buy orders stacked at a certain price.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)The characteristic which defines a system that tolerates the class of failures that belong to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem
Byzantine Generals ProblemA game theoretical situation in which participants in a network need to coordinate consensus in action - in the army analogy, generals must decide if they decide to attack or withdraw, but that their communication or teammates may be sabotaged or traitors. Using algorithms such as Proof of Work Consensus models, blockchains and decentralized systems are able to achieve consensus and thus solve the Byzantine Generals Problem
Candidate BlockA temporary block created by mining nodes using transactions from the memory pool. Each mining node tries to add this candidate block to the blockchain.
CandlestickVertical bar graphs used in financial markets to indicate recent activity of the price of an asset - the top and bottom of the candlestick indicate the opening and close prices within a specified time window for the bar, and the lines that extend from it, known as wicks, indicate the total ranges, from high to low, within that time interval.
CapitulationWhen investors 'give up' and exit their position as quickly as possible to seek an investment which is less risky.
CasperA PoS protocol in which malicious actors are punished.
Censorship ResistanceReferring to the immutability of Blockchain. Once a transaction enters the blockchain, it is extremely difficult to alter.
Central BankA financial institution that acts as a monetary authority and manages a states currency, interest rates and money supply.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)A computer component that performs interpretation and execution of most commands from computer hardware and software.
CentralizedOne single entity (or group) has authority
CipherA method for encrypting messages. Ciphers do not involve meaning like codes would, they are algorithms.
Circulating SupplyThe best approximation of the number of unlocked tokens/coins for a cryptocurrency.
CJsA digital community currency, like digital Berkshares, used to circulate through the members and participants of the global Wacoinda network and disapora. There are 1 million Garveys in every CJ. Garveys are to Cjs as satoshis are to bitcoins.
ClientThe receiving end or requestor of a service.
CliffTime period before the vesting schedule commences and tokens/coins start being released into circulation
Clock DriftWhen one clock does not run at the exact rate of the reference clock.
Closed sourceCode that is kept private and not shared with the public.
CoinA cryptocurrency or digital cash that is independent of any other platform, which is used as exchange of value.
Coin Market Cap (CMC)CoinMarketCap provides diverse range of crypto data. Get up-to-date listing prices, available supply, trade volume, and market capitalizations on CoinMarketCap.
Cold StorageAn offline crypto wallet, often referring to hardware not connected to the internet, such as a Ledger
Cold WalletA wallet that is not connected to the internet. Watch our video to learn more.
CollateralPledging of something against a loan to guarantee repayment.
Colored CoinsCreating coins using the bitcoin network which would be used to represent real world assets.
Command Line Interface (cli)A user interface that is controlled by typing commands.
CommitWhen someone adds or changes part of a source code within a repository.
Comparative AdvantageAn economics concept in which one party has a relative advantage in efficiency in producing/providing a certain pair of goods or services compared to another party, but each party is relatively better (or equal) at producing at least one of the two goods/services.
ConfirmationOnce a transaction has been broadcasted to a network, it may be included in a block that is published to the network at which point, it will gain a confirmation. A confirmation represents a degree of permanence on a blockchain.
Confirmation Time(Block Time) - the average time it takes to add one block to the blockchain
ConfluenceWhen someone combines multiple trading strategies to create another strategy.
Consensus MechanismThe theoretical approach to get the decentralized, trustless network to all agree.
CredentialsPersonal information. Examples include username, password, email address, qualifications and many more.
CryptocurrencyA cryptocurrency is a digital currency that is secured by cryptography. One of its primary functions is to work as a medium of exchange within a peer-to-peer (P2P) economic system built on distributed ledger technology, which relies on cryptography to prevent frauds and counterfeiting. Most cryptocurrency systems are decentralized and maintained by a distributed network of computers (nodes) spread around the world.
CryptographyCryptography is a method of storing and sending data in a form so that it can only be read and processed by its intended recipient.
CustodyOwnership of one's funds or assets; in crypto, holding custody of a wallet and its assets also means holding the private keys and the responsibility of keeping funds safe.
DaemonA process operating in the background waiting for a specific event or condition in order to be activated.
Dark poolPrivate exchanges or groups that lack transparency and are not accessible by the public.
Day TradingBuying and selling assets on the same day multiple times with the intention of profiting
Dead Cat BounceTrading term referring to a recovery in price of an asset following a significant drop.
DecentralizedWhen no single entity (or group) has authority.
Decentralized Applications (dApps)Applications that run on a P2P network of computers rather than one central computer. This allows the software to run on the internet without being controlled by a single entity.
Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative (DAC)An organization that is controlled by shareholders rather than a central authority.
Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)In general, a system of hard coded rules that define which actions an organization will take. The DAO may also refer to: specifically the DAO that was on Ethereum
Decentralized ExchangeAn exchange which does not require users to deposit funds to start trading and does not hold the funds for the user. Instead, users trade directly from their own wallets.
DecouplingWhen an altcoin no longer follows the price trend of bitcoin.
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)A consensus mechanism where token holders vote on delegates to do the validation of the network on their behalf. Delegates are periodically shuffled.
DelistingThe process of removing a token from an exchange that could be voluntarily or unvoluntarily.
DemurrageCost of holding or owning a currency.
Denial of Service (DoS)An attack with the intent of disrupting a network, making it inaccessible to its users.
DepositSending in money or cryptocurrency to recharge an account
Depth ChartA visual representation of the order book
DifficultyA measure of how difficult is to find a hash below a specific target
Difficulty BombA significant increase in mining difficulty for a proof-of-work coin. This term is often used in reference to Ethereum's exponentially increasing difficulty.
Diluted Market CapThe market value of a company's outstanding shares plus the market value of dilutives such as stock options and convertibles. The latter market value is computed by assuming the dilutives were changed to stocks today, multipliying by the current stock price.
DipA momentary drop in price of an asset
Discount TokenA type of utility token used to give users or early adopters a perk or incentive to prepay for access of a certain network, protocol, software, or service
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)An attack where multiple systems are used to attack a target, such as a server, website or network, resulting in a Denial of Service (DoS) for the users of the targeted server, website or network.
Distributed Ledger TechnologyAnother term for blockchain technology or decentralized databases
DivergenceDivergence occurs when the price of an asset and a certain indicator (e.g. MACD, RSI) are heading in opposite directions.
DiversificationIn the investment context, diversification refers to the allocation of funds across different types of assets and jurisdictions in order to reduce the investment risk.
Do Your Own Research (DYOR)A valuable piece of advice. It's always wise to research a coin yourself instead of following what others say.
Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA)Investing fixed dollar amounts over regular periods of time regardless of the price of the asset.
Double SpendingWhen a given amount of coins are spent more than once. Usually as a result of a race attack or a 51% attack.
DustA tiny transaction or amount that is not worth sending with fixed cost fees
Eclipse AttackWhen the majority of peers on the network are malicious and monopolize the network in order to prevent specific nodes from receiving information from honest nodes.
EncryptionConversion of information or data into a secure code in order to prevent unauthorised access to the information or data.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)The industry’s first global standards organization to deliver an open, standards-based architecture and specification to accelerate the adoption of Enterprise Ethereum.
ERC-20A technical standard used on the Ethereum Blockchain. ERC stands for Ethereum Request for Comments. '20' is the unique proposal ID number.
ERC-721An ethereum based non-fungible token
EtherThe underlying token powering the Ethereum Blockchain.
ExchangeA marketplace for cryptocurrencies where users can buy and sell coins.
Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)A fund that tracks an index, a commodity, bonds or a basket of assets. For instance, an ETF that tracks the S&P 500 is holding a certain composition of shares in companies within the respective index, thus replicating it. An ETF that tracks the oil price could do so either by holding shares in oil-related companies, whose stock price movement serves as a benchmark for the oil price, or by physically holding oil. In the latter case, investors in an oil ETF would indirectly own oil through their shares in the ETF and thus, the price movement of the ETF would represent that of the oil price.
Exchange ValueDepicts the value of a good/service as a unit of another good/service.
Explain Like I'm 5 (ELI5)Explaining a concept in very basic terms such that a 5 year old could understand.
Exponential Moving Average (EMA)A type of moving average which places more significant weight on the most recent data points. As opposed to a Simple Moving Average.
Fault ToleranceSee Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)
Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO)Anxiety that you might be missing out on an exciting opportunity.
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD)A strategy used to spread insecurity among customers or investors.
Federated Byzantine AgreementA type of Byzantine Consensus in which the verification and identity of nodes does not have to be known prior to agreement, allowing for open membership and decentralization.
FiatMoney that a government has declared to be legal tender.
Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)A type of Integrated Circuit that can be configured or set up for a specific purpose by the end user "in the field"
Fill or Kill Order (FOK)A buy or sell order which must be executed immediately or else it will be cancelled.
FinalityThe state of a confirmed transaction that cannot ever be reversed.
First Mover AdvantageA first mover is a company that enters a certain market first, thus securing the advantage of establishing strong brand recognition and customer loyalty before anyone else.
FlappeningThe name for when (if) Litecoin overtakes Bitcoin Cash in market cap
FlippeningThe name for when (if) Ethereum overtakes Bitcoin in market cap
Forced LiquidationWhen a broker forcily liquidates an investors position as a result of their position falling below the margin requirement.
ForkSee Hard Fork or Soft Fork
Formal VerificationUsing mathematically rigorus proofs to ensure certain properties of cryptographic algorithms and blockchain mechanisms
Full NodeComputers that fully implement the entirety of rules of an underlying blockchain network and completely validate transactions and blocks on a blockchain.
Fundamental AnalysisFundamental Analysis (FA) - evaluating an asset based on its underlying characteristics and traits as an effort towards arriving at an intrinsic value of the asset.
FungibleIndistinguishable and non-unique; in the case of bitcoin, each bitcoin is treated as the same.
GainsAggregate returns from holding tokens
Game theoryA concept of strategic decision-making within an environment of competing actors. Key to the concept is that a player's decisions directly impact the payoff of all actors, thus forcing a rational player to make decisions by considering the decisions that other actors may make.
GasExecution fee for every operation made on certain blockchain networks.
Gas LimitThe maximum amount of fees one is willing to pay for a transaction - once a transaction has accrued the cost of the gas limit without getting filled, the transaction will fail. This is in place to prevent low-ball transactions that clog up networks.
General Public LicenseA type of "copyleft" license first created by the Free Software Foundation for the GNU project that allows all users to modify and distribute any version of the software, allowing for open-source software to be maintained and improved by users.
Genesis BlockThe first block of a blockchain, sometimes referred to as block 0
GitHubA site/system/folder/repository where a team can share, collaborate, and save their open source code
GossipWhen nodes share information with other nodes.
GovernanceThe activity of monitoring whether a certain set of policies finds proper implementation.
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)Primarily used to boost the performance of video and graphics, however, are frequently used in mining coins with a Proof of Work consensus algorithm.
GweiGwei is a denomination of Ether. 1,000,000,000 wei = 1 Giga wei (Gwei)
hackathonAn event where developers and builders alike compete against each other in order to create usable software within a certain time period matching specific requirements set by the host.
HalvingWhen the block reward of a crypto asset, such as bitcoin, drops to one-half of what it was before; this is used to create a decaying rate of issuance to arrive at an eventual finite supply of a crypto asset.
Hard CapThe maximum amount of funds a project intends to raise in their ICO.
Hard ForkA significant change in the protocol of a blockchain network that makes all previous and future valid blocks, invalid (or vice-versa).
Hardware WalletA cryptocurrency wallet which stores the owners private keys within the hardware device. Trezor and Ledger are examples of hardware wallets.
HashThe output of a hash function.
Hash functionA function which converts an input into an encrypted output of fixed length. Hashes are created using an algorithm.
Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC)A type of smart contract in which the payment recipient must acknowledge receipt with a cryptographic proof of payment, or else forfeit their claim to the payment.
HashrateThe speed at which you are outputting hash functions. Usually measured in hashes per second.
HedgingAn investment strategy used to reduce risk. Moving assets into something less volatile.
High Frequency Trading (HFC)A program trading platform which utilises the computational power of powerful computers in order to analyse multiple markets through the use of complex algorithms. Profitabilty of HFC is often tied to trade execution speed.
High Net Worth Individual (HNWI)Individuals with a considerable amount of investible funds.
HODLA typo of "Hold" originating from bitcointalk that has also been retrofitted to be an acronym for Hold on for Dear Life - to maintain ownership of coins and not sell.
HoneypotA mechanism used in computer security used to detect or counteract unauthorised access of information systems.
Hot WalletA wallet that is connected to the internet. Watch our video to learn more.
Howey TestOne of multiple tests that may classify an assset as a security.
Iceberg OrderA conditional order to buy or sell a large amount of assets in smaller predetermined quantities.
ImmutabilityUnable to change or be changed.
Improvement ProposalsA process for collecting suggestions for updates to an open source blockchain, such as BIP for Bitcoin or EIP for Ethereum
IncubatorAn accelerator program that boosts projects from early stages to develop and grow
IndexA financial instrument used to track the price value of a given asset or basket of assets
IndicatorA statistical tool used in Technical Analysis to suggest a possible trend for an asset.
InflationInflation happens when the inflation rate rises above 0%. It represents an increase in the general price level of goods and services. It can be triggered among others through the extension in money supply or when the overall economic demand of goods and services exceeds the respective supply.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)A fundraising method in which new projects will sell their cryptocurrency to investors.
Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)Where a project first lists and offers its tokens on an exchange, skipping an ICO.
Institutional InvestorAn entity that pools money to purchase securities on behalf of its members.
Integrated CircuitSometimes referred to as a chip or a microchip. It is an electronic circuit that can function as computer memory, micro processors, oscillators, amplifiers, and more.
Intellectual PropertyIntangible and intellectual inventions and creations such as names, symbols, designs, images that are protected by patents, trademarks and copyrights.
Internal TransactionsValue transfers on the ethereum network that are executed by smart contracts
international money remittanceThe transfer of funds across country borders, traditionally by expensive options such as wire or other inter-bank transfer.
Internet of Things (IoT)Connected devices that can transmit data to one another
InteroperabilityA concept of allowing blockchains to be compatible with each other and build upon each other's features and use-cases.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)A protocol for distributed content storage and access.
IOUA promise for future payment or debt of service.
IssuanceRelease of asset or token
JagerThe smallest denomination of Binance Coin.
KeccakA family of cryptographic sponge functions (pronounced “ketchak”)
Know Your Customer (KYC)A standard procedure in the finance industry which allows companies to identify their customers.
LedgerA hardware wallet used for storing cryptocurrencies. A Ledger is also a cold wallet as it does not connect to the internet.
LeverageWhen an individual makes a trade in which, given a change in the price of an asset, the individual's investment moves at a greater multiple of the asset. This can be achieved by investing in special financial instruments, or borrowing against existing collateral to invest again or double down in that asset.
LibraryA collection of resources in a given programming language available for use by computer programs.
Light NodeA node which does not include a full copy of all past transactions of a blockchain
LightningLightning network is a second layer operating on top of a blockchain, enabling increased transaction speed among participating nodes. This is one proposed scaling solution.
Limit OrderWhen a maker creates a new order for an asset by specifying the price and quantity one is willing to buy or sell at. A limit buy must be below the current price, or else it will instantly match with an existing order in the book, and a limit sell order must be above the current price for the same reason. There is no guarantee that a limit order will be filled.
LiquidationWhen an investor exits their position for cash.
LiquidityThe availability of a specific asset in a market.
ListingThe process of getting a coin on an exchange
LivenessA guarantee that some process (either its success or termination) eventually happens and consensus is achieved in a distributed system.
Main chainThe actual full, working blockchain of a given project.
MainnetA mainnet is the production environment of a cryptocurrencies blockchain network.
Mainnet SwapWhen a coin switches from their ERC-20 or other token to a native on-chain token on their mainnet.
MakerYou become a “maker” when you place an order and it does not trade immediately, so your order stays in the order book and waits for someone else to fill/match with it later.
MalwareA software program designed to harm or damage a computer system.
Margin TradingTrading using borrowed funds - note: this is a high risk strategy and should only be done by experienced investors. See: leverage
Market CapitalizationThe total trading value of a given coin - calculated by the product of the supply of the coin by the current price.
Market OrderWhen a taker picks the best available bid or ask for a cryptocurrency, taking the price and quantity available on the order book.
MasternodeNodes on a network that often require a minimum amount of a given coin staked in order to access staking rewards.
Mathematical Trap DoorA function that is hard to calculate in one direction, but easy to calculate in the other direction, such as the elliptical function.
Maximum SupplyThe maximum amount of coins that will ever exist for a cryptocurrency.
MeetupAn informal gathering of people who share a particular interest in a certain subject.
MempoolThe waiting room for all transactions that are verified and need to be included in the next block.
Merged MiningWhen a smaller coin chooses a widely-adopted PoW algorithm that a more popular blockchain uses such that a miner can simultaneously mine for both chains and have an incentive to support both chains.
Merkle TreeA hash based data structure which summarizes all transactions in a block.
metadataData that includes information about other data, such as information about features of a specific transaction.
MinerAn individual node or computer who is contributing computing power to a network
Minimum Viable Product (MVP)A product with just enough features so that it can be released.
MiningThe verification of transactions on a blockchain network, in which transactions are added as entries into the blockchain ledger.
Mining FarmA collection of many miners, often in a warehouse or large data center devoted to mining cryptocurrencies
Mining PoolA collective of miners who aggregate their hash rate to increase their chance of finding a correct block, with the purpose of smoothing out their chances of payout for mining. Participants earn a proportion of the rewards earned by the pool that correlates to the share of hashrate they contributed to the pool's entire hashrate
Mining rigA computer system specifically designed for mining purposes.
Mobile WalletA cryptocurrency wallet accessible via app on a smartphone.
Monetary PolicyRefers to the policies of the central bank and other respective authorities within a monetary system to manage the money supply and interest rates. It aims to stimulate macroeconomic factors such as inflation, unemployment, consumption and economic growth.
MoonWhen a coin goes astronomically up!
Moore's LawIn general, the concept that technology improves over time at an exponential rate, simultaneously increasing productivity while lowering price.
Moving Average (MA)An average across a certain set of past data points. It is called "moving" as it is continously recomputed as new data becomes available, by dropping the earliest data point and adding the newest.
Moving Average Convergence Diverence (MACD)A technical indicator which shows relationship between the short term and long term price trends in order to anticipate future market trends. Calculated by subtracting the 26 day EMA from the 12 day EMA.
MultisignatureWallet which requires another party to authorize a transaction before it is broadcasted to the network.
My Ether Wallet (MEW)A web-based user interface for accessing ethereum based cryptocurrency wallets. MEW is a user interface, not a bank. Tokens are not stored on MEW.
Net Present ValueThe difference between an initial investment and the sum of the present values of cash flows.
NodesParticipants on a decentralized network, can come in light or full forms.
Non-fungible Token (NFT)A special type of cryptocurrency that is unique and not interchangable.
NonceA one-use arbitrary string or number generated for a verification purposes to prevent replaying past transactions.
Off-chainTransactions that occur off a given blockchain network, that may be later reported or batched together before submitted
Offshore accountAn account that is registered in a jurisdiction that is different to the jurisdiction of the holder's citizenship.
On-chainTransactions that occur on the given blockchain network
Open Source SoftwareSoftware released under a license that gives users the ability and right to use, update, and distribute the software for any use in open, collaborative efforts.
Open Source Software (OSS)Software which has the source code available for anyone to view, modify or improve.
OracleA data source or feed from a third party used for determining outcomes for smart contracts
Order BookThe complete list of outstanding buy and sell limit orders listed on an exchange or marketplace.
Orphan BlockA valid block mined by nodes on a network which are not included in the main chain.
Over The Counter (OTC)Refers to the trade of assets, securities or commodities in ways other than on a formal exchange. It usually engages a dealer network that acts as an intermediary between the buy and sell side. OTC can be very critical when desiring to execute high volume trades by individually matching respective buy and sell sides. In contrast, a high volume market order on a formal exchange could substantially affect prices due to insufficient liquidity.
OvercollateralizationWhen a financial instrument, such as a stablecoin or loan, is backed by an amount of assets that exceeds the value of the instrument itself, to account for volatility of the underlying asset.
Paper WalletA pair of public and private keys that individuals can print out onto a sheet of paper for safekeeping (not recommended)
PartitionThe general process of storing an entire set of data in smaller chunks.
Peer-to-peer (P2P)When two or more computers are connected and share workload or resources without going through a separate centralised server or computer
Pegged currencyA currency where the price is designed to remain the same as a designated asset. For example: 1 USDT is pegged to 1 USD.
PhishingA malicious attack where a bad actor will attempt to obtain the credentials of a user in order to gain unauthorised access into their account.
PilotAn early beta user program (often free or cheap for participants) where a team can gain valuable feedback on their product
PlasmaAn Ethereum off-chain scaling solution which may allow Etherum to greatly increase the transactions per second capablities.
Point of SaleDefines the place where vendor and buyer get in contact. It can be the supermarket next corner as well the exchange to buy and sell crypto assets.
Ponzi SchemeA scam in which new investors' funds are used to pay returns promised to previous investors. Do not invest in these.
PremineA PoW system in which the founding team got a head start in mining and already accumulated much of their coin while the network's hashrate was low.
Prisoner's DilemmaAn example in game theory which demonstrates why two individuals may not want to cooperate even though it may appear to be in their best interest.
Privacy CoinA cryptocurrency that aims to keep user transaction data mostly private.
Private KeyPrivate string that acts like a password for one's cryptocurrency wallet. Do not lose it or share it!
Private SaleAn early stage investment round for strategic investors with a considerable amount of investible funds.
Proof of Authority (PoA)A consensus mechanism. All transactions on a network using PoA are validated by admins of the network. This is more of a centralized approach to consensus mechanisms and is more likely to be used for private blockchains.
Proof of Rounds (PoR)Centralized system of generating blocks in order rather than at random, which functions based on a hierarchy of Master Nodes, Super Nodes and Normal Nodes. It also optimizes node productivity as a result of allocating hierarchical jobs/specializations to nodes.
Proof of Stake (PoS)A consensus mechanism. It places priority on an investor's stake of a certain token. The greater the investor's stake, the more probable that the next block will be mined by this investor.
Proof of Work (PoW)A consensus mechanism. It places priority on computational power. The greater the computational power within the network of a certain miner, the more probable that this miner will mine the next block.
Public KeyKeys that can be shared, like an email address, for other people to view and send to.
Public SaleA later stage investment round for the public, including retail investors.
Pump and DumpA type of market manipulation in which a group coordinates an effort to set buy orders, causing an artificial spike in price, before eventually crashing back down. These are dangerous and can cost investors lots of money in short amounts of time.
Race attackWhen two transactions are created with the same funds at the same time, with the intention of spending those funds twice.
RallyWhen a market recovers or increases in value suddenly.
RansomwareA type of malware which takes over your computer and threatens to destroy or reveal files unless a ransom is paid.
Recovery PhraseSee Seed Phrase
Replay attackAlso known as a Playback attack - where valid transactions or data are repeated, delayed, or otherwise tampered to attack a network.
ResistanceA term in Technical Analysis (TA). When a price that is increasing finds resistance. Usually compared with previous highs.
Retail InvestorRegular, everyday investors and households, as opposed to institutional investors.
Return on Investment (ROI)A measure used in order to assess the efficiency of an investment. The ratio between net profit and net cost.
Rich ListA list of addresses on certain blockchains that contain the most of that coin. See this bitcoin rich list for an example
RoadmapA planned schedule of a project's progress.
RobustnessThe degree to which a network can withstand failure and disruption.
RSIA trading indicator that attempts to capture momentum in an asset's recent price behaviour. It determines overbought and oversold positions.
SatoshiThe smallest unit of the bitcoin currency recorded on the blockchain. It is a one hundred millionth of a single bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC), named after the pseudonymous founder of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto
ScalingIncreasing the throughput & processing capabilities of a blockchain
ScamA deceitful and misleading act to take financial advantage over an individual or an entity.
ScryptAn alternativehash algorithm to SHA-256, first used by Litecoin
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)A security protocol designed to create encrypted links a server and a browser.
SecurityAny type of proof of ownership or debt that can be assigned a value. A tradeable financial asset.
Security AuditA peer review of some smart contract or other blockchain code to identify and address potentially costly bugs or flaws in development.
Security TokenA token that has passed the Howey Test and is subject to federal securities and regulations. See also: Security
Seed PhraseA group of passwords that can be decrypted into your private keys, which allow you to recover and access funds within your wallet
Seed RoundThe first round of investment into a project
Segregated Witness (SegWit)A process where the transaction signatures are separated from bitcoin transactions. Allowing more transactions to fit within one block.
Selfish MiningIn a proof-of-work system, where a miner finds a block and decides not to broadcast it to the network, thus allowing the miner to get a headstart on the next block, and then overrule other miners once they find a second block because they have a longer chain than any other miner. The risk of this occurring increases when an individual has a higher share of the network's hashrate, such as in a 51% attack.
Sell WallA large order or group of orders at the same price on the sell side of an order book. This is often referred to as a bearish signal.
SentimentThe overall attitude within the community towards a certain coin, the market as a whole etc.
SHA-256Short for Secure Hash algorithm a cryptographic hash algorithm that produces 256-bit (32-byte) signatures for a given string, used by Bitcoin.
ShadowThe lines extending from the colored bar in a candlestick chart that indicate the full low-high range of a trading pair within a certain time frame. Also referred to as wicks or whiskers.
ShardingThe process of breaking down a blockchain into smaller pieces, and storing just one such piece (shard) of the whole puzzle. This requires n many working participants in a decentralized system with n many shards.
Sharpe RatioThe excess return over the risk-free rate per unit of standard deviation (risk).
ShillingWhen someone strongly recommends or attempts to sell you on the idea of purchasing an asset. The person shilling is usually doing so out of self interests.
ShipTo release or publish a product or code.
SignalWhen someone recommends either a buy or sell action. A buy signal will often contain a purchase price and a profit goal. Often considered a form of shilling
Simple Moving Average (SMA)A type of moving average which places equal weight on all data points in the equation. As opposed to an Exponential Moving Average.
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)A method used in order to verify which transactions have been included in a block without downloading the whole block.
Smart ContractSmart contracts are automated contracts that trigger certain action when predetermined conditions are met. It works like "If…then" conditions as for instance, it needs condition C met before money can be transferred from A to B. It became popular in the context of the Ethereum blockchain.
SnapshotA record of your coin holdings at a certain point in time.
Soft CapA designated fund raising goal which if achieved, the ICO will be considered successful and the project development will proceed as planned.
Soft ForkChange to the software protocol where only previously valid blocks/transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes will recognize the new blocks as valid, a softfork is backward-compatible
Software Development Kit (SDK)A developer toolkit that includes all the tools, functions, and documentation to assist in using a certain software or API
SolidityProgramming language used for building smart contracts on Ethereum.
Sortino RatioA modification of the Sharpe Ratio. It is the risk-adjusted return of an investment and takes into consideration the investment's actual rate of return, its required (minimum acceptable) rate of return and a corresponding risk measure.
Source CodeThe codebase of a project. If it is shared by the organization or individuals that built it, it is said to be open-sourced.
SpreadThe difference between the lowest ask price and the largest bid price.
StablecoinA cryptocurrency designed to be pegged to a specific value
Staking poolRefers to a pool of coins that aims to improve its stake in a POS coin's circulating supply to increase its chances to verify the next block.
Store of ValueA commodity, asset or currency that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a future date.
SupportA term in Technical Analysis (TA). When a price that is decreasing finds 'support. Usually compared with lows.
SwingA quick, large change in prices.
Sybil AttackAn attack strategy in which fake accounts identities can be easily created, ruining the trustworthiness of a reputation system or other voting-based system.
TakerThe "taker" is someone who decides to place an order that is instantly matched with an existing order on the order book.
TangleA name used to describe IOTA's DAG
TankA sharp drop in prices over a short period of time.
Technical Analysis (TA)A method of trading where a trader will try to identify patterns and trends in charts by analyzing statistics obtained from previous trading activity.
TestnetA testnet is a development network for a cryptocurrencies blockchain network.
ThroughputThe amount of transactions a network can handle, often measured in TPS
TickerThe trading "symbol" or shortened name (typically in capital letters) that refer to a coin on a trading platform. For example: BNB
TokenFungible and tradable asset or a utility that is often found on a blockchain. Generally requires another platform to exist and operate, and has uses beyond being simply digital cash
Token DistributionDistribution of a staking reward, an airdrop, etc.
Token LockupA period of time in which respective coins are not allowed to be sold or transferred.
Token SaleThe issuance of tokens in exchange for another cryptocurrency. Also referred to as an Initial Coin Offering
Token VelocityThe amount of transactions that happen for a given money supply or token.
Total SupplyThe total amount of coins or tokens in existence for a cryptocurrency.
Trading DeskA place for transactions of commodities, securities, or other financial instruments.
Trading feeFees paid by users looking to exchange one token or currency for another.
Trading PairA currency pair that denominates the price of a given currency in units of the base currency.
Transaction FeeFees paid by users of a network to the miners or other entities that process the transactions.
Transaction ID (TXID)Transaction ID also referred to as a Transaction hash. This is a transaction identifier used to reference transactions on a blockchain.
Transaction MiningAn exchange model that rebates trading fees from transactions in the form of an exchange token. Similar to an ICO
Transactions Per second (TPS)Refers to the amount of transactions that a blockchain is capable of processing each second.
TrezorA hardware wallet used for storing cryptocurrencies. A Trezor is also a cold wallet as it does not connect to the internet. See also: Ledger
Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)A specific area of a processor that allows for security, integrity, and confidentiality for a specific calculation or process of code.
TrustlessThere is no single entity or individual that has authority over a system, which would otherwise require participants to trust the authority to ensure a frictionless functioning of the system. In a trustless system, consensus is reached across the network's stakeholders.
Turing CompleteThe property of a system that can theoretically calculate everything assuming sufficient memory.
Two Factor Authentication (2FA)An additional layer of security known as "multi-factor authentication.
Unit-of-AccountA specific quantity in nominal monetary terms signifying an amount of real value
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)Unlike spent outputs, unspent outputs are available to be used in new transactions.
User Interface (UI)The interface where interactions between humans and machines occur. It establishes how a user can interact with a machine.
Utility TokenA token that fails the Howey Test as it is not designed as an investment.
ValidatorA node on a network that verifies transactions
VaporwareA project that has no product and no visible progress in development.
Verification CodeA code sent to a second device to ensure the identity of someone logging in to an account (see: 2FA)
VestingA schedule in which tokens may be eventually released from lockup to stakeholders or team members of a project -this prevents the owners of a token from immediately selling and cashing out right away.
Virtual MachineAn emulated computer system, or a distributed system that is designed to replicate the features of a computer's architecture.
Vladimir ClubA metric referring to the cost of acquiring 0.01% of a coin's marketcap at current market price.
VolatilityA measure of fluctuations in a coin's price
VolumeThe total value of a coin traded within a given period
WallA large amount of orders at a specific value in the order book
WalletUsed to store cryptocurrencies. Different types include: Cold wallets, hot wallets, hardware wallets, and paper wallets
Wash TradingThe act of trading funds repeatedly between yourself or a small group of people.
Weak HandsTerm referring to investors that do not have strong confidence in a coin once the price starts dropping.
Web 1.0The initial iteration of the web, when data was mostly read only. Also known as "read only" web.
Web 2.0Also known as "read-write" web. When users had the ability to interact with other web users.
Web 3.0Also known as "read-write-execute" web. When computers are able to interpret data in ways that a human would be able to.
WeiThe smallest denomination of Ether. 1 Ether = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Wei
WhaleA trader with a large position of a given cryptocurrency
WhiskersThe lines extending from the colored bar in a candlestick chart that indicate the full low-high range of a trading pair within a certain time frame. Also referred to as wicks or shadows.
WhitelistA list of KYC-approved customers or investors that want to get in line to be the first to use, access, or invest in a project.
WhitepaperProspectus that outlines the technical aspects of the product, the problems it intends to solve, how it is going to address them, a description of the team, and a description of the token generation and distribution strategy. Usually issued before an Initial Coin Offering.
WickThe lines extending from the colored bar in a candlestick chart that indicate the full low-high range of a trading pair within a certain time frame. Also referred to as whiskers or shadows.
WithdrawalTaking money out of an account
Yellow PaperA formal paper which includes all the research of a project.
Zero-Knowledge ProofsProofs to verify that transactions are valid without revealing any information about these transactions, providing privacy to the transaction while maintaining its legitimacy.
Zk-Snarks“Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge” - an approach to zero knowledge proofs
ACCRUALThe apportionment of premiums and discounts on forward exchange transactions that relate directly to deposit swap (interest arbitrage) deals, over the period of each deal.
ADJUSTMENTOfficial action normally occasioned by a change either in the internal economic policies to correct a payment imbalance or in the official currency rate.
AGGRESSIVETraders and/or price action are acting with conviction.
ANALYSTA financial professional who has expertise in evaluating investments and puts together buy, sell and hold recommendations for clients.
APPRECIATIONA product is said to 'appreciate' when it strengthens in price in response to market demand.
ARBITRAGEThe simultaneous purchase or sale of a financial product in order to take advantage of small price differentials between markets.
ASIAN CENTRAL BANKSRefers to the central banks or monetary authorities of Asian countries. These institutions have been increasingly active in major currencies as they manage growing pools of foreign currency reserves arising from trade surpluses. Their market interest can be substantial and influence currency direction in the short-term.
ASIAN SESSION23:00 – 08:00 GMT.
ASK (OFFER) PRICEThe price at which the market is prepared to sell a product. Prices are quoted two-way as Bid/Ask. The Ask price is also known as the Offer.

In FX trading, the Ask represents the price at which a trader can buy the base currency, shown to the left in a currency pair. For example, in the quote USD/CHF 1.4527/32, the base currency is USD, and the Ask price is 1.4532, meaning you can buy one US dollar for 1.4532 Swiss francs.

In CFD trading, the Ask also represents the price at which a trader can buy the product. For example, in the quote for UK OIL 111.13/111.16, the product quoted is UK OIL and the Ask price is £111.16 for one unit of the underlying market.*
AT BESTAn instruction given to a dealer to buy or sell at the best rate that can be obtained at a specific time.
AT OR BETTERAn instruction given to a dealer to buy or sell at a specific price or better.
AUS 200A term for the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX 200), which is an index of the top 200 companies (by market capitalization) listed on the Australian stock exchange.
AUSSIERefers to the AUD/USD (Australian Dollar/U.S. Dollar) pair. Also "Oz" or "Ozzie".
BALANCE OF TRADEThe value of a country's exports minus its imports.
BAR CHARTA type of chart which consists of four significant points: the high and the low prices, which form the vertical bar; the opening price, which is marked with a horizontal line to the left of the bar; and the closing price, which is marked with a horizontal line to the right of the bar.
BARRIER LEVELA certain price of great importance included in the structure of a Barrier Option. If a Barrier Level price is reached, the terms of a specific Barrier Option call for a series of events to occur.
BARRIER OPTIONAny number of different option structures (such as knock-in, knock-out, no touch, double-no-touch-DNT) that attaches great importance to a specific price trading. In a no-touch barrier, a large defined payout is awarded to the buyer of the option by the seller if the strike price is not 'touched' before expiry. This creates an incentive for the option seller to drive prices through the strike level and creates an incentive for the option buyer to defend the strike level.
BASE CURRENCYThe first currency in a currency pair. It shows how much the base currency is worth as measured against the second currency. For example, if the USD/CHF (U.S. Dollar/Swiss Franc) rate equals 1.6215, then one USD is worth CHF 1.6215. In the forex market, the US dollar is normally considered the base currency for quotes, meaning that quotes are expressed as a unit of $1 USD per the other currency quoted in the pair. The primary exceptions to this rule are the British pound, the euro and the Australian dollar.
BASE RATEThe lending rate of the central bank of a given country.
BASINGA chart pattern used in technical analysis that shows when demand and supply of a product are almost equal. It results in a narrow trading range and the merging of support and resistance levels.
BASIS POINTA unit of measurement used to describe the minimum change in the price of a product.
BEARISH/BEAR MARKETNegative for price direction; favoring a declining market. For example, "We are bearish EUR/USD" means that we think the euro will weaken against the dollar.
BEARSTraders who expect prices to decline and may be holding short positions.
BID PRICEThe price at which the market is prepared to buy a product. Prices are quoted two-way as Bid/Ask. In FX trading, the Bid represents the price at which a trader can sell the base currency, shown to the left in a currency pair. For example, in the quote USD/CHF 1.4527/32, the base currency is USD, and the Bid price is 1.4527, meaning you can sell one US Dollar for 1.4527 Swiss francs. In CFD trading, the Bid also represents the price at which a trader can sell the product. For example, in the quote for UK OIL 111.13/111.16, the Bid price is £111.13 for one unit of the underlying market.*
BID/ASK SPREADThe difference between the bid and the ask (offer) price.
BIG FIGURERefers to the first three digits of a currency quote, such as 117 USD/JPY or 1.26 in EUR/USD. If the price moves by 1.5 big figures, it has moved 150 pips.
BISThe Bank for International Settlements located in Basel, Switzerland, is the central bank for central banks. The BIS frequently acts as the market intermediary between national central banks and the market. The BIS has become increasingly active as central banks have increased their currency reserve management. When the BIS is reported to be buying or selling at a level, it is usually for a central bank and thus the amounts can be large. The BIS is used to avoid markets mistaking buying or selling interest for official government intervention.
BLACK BOXThe term used for systematic, model-based or technical traders.
BLOW OFFThe upside equivalent of capitulation. When shorts throw in the towel and cover any remaining short positions.
BOCBank of Canada, the central bank of Canada.
BOEBank of England, the central bank of the UK.
BOJBank of Japan, the central bank of Japan.
BOLLINGER BANDSA tool used by technical analysts. A band plotted two standard deviations on either side of a simple moving average, which often indicates support and resistance levels.
BONDA name for debt which is issued for a specified period of time.
BOOKIn a professional trading environment, a book is the summary of a trader's or desk's total positions.
A British measure of the rate of inflation at various surveyed retailers. This index only looks at price changes in goods purchased in retail outlets.
BROKERAn individual or firm that acts as an intermediary, bringing buyers and sellers together for a fee or commission. In contrast, a dealer commits capital and takes one side of a position, hoping to earn a spread (profit) by closing out the position in a subsequent trade with another party.
BUCKMarket slang for one million units of a dollar-based currency pair, or for the US dollar in general.
BULLISH/BULL MARKETFavoring a strengthening market and rising prices. For example, "We are bullish EUR/USD” means that we think the euro will strengthen against the dollar.
BULLSTraders who expect prices to rise and who may be holding long positions.
BUNDESBANKGermany's central bank.
BUYTaking a long position on a product.
BUY DIPSLooking to buy 20-30-pip/point pullbacks in the course of an intra-day trend.
CABLEThe GBP/USD (Great British Pound/U.S. Dollar) pair. Cable earned its nickname because the rate was originally transmitted to the US via a transatlantic cable beginning in the mid 1800s when the GBP was the currency of international trade.
CADThe Canadian dollar, also known as Loonie or Funds.
CALL OPTIONA currency trade which exploits the interest rate difference between two countries. By selling a currency with a low rate of interest and buying a currency with a high rate of interest, the trader will receive the interest difference between the two countries while this trade is open.
A monthly gauge of Canadian business sentiment issued by the Richard Ivey Business School.
CANDLESTICK CHARTA chart that indicates the trading range for the day as well as the opening and closing price. If the open price is higher than the close price, the rectangle between the open and close price is shaded. If the close price is higher than the open price, that area of the chart is not shaded.
CAPITULATIONA point at the end of an extreme trend when traders who are holding losing positions exit those positions. This usually signals that the expected reversal is just around the corner.
CARRY TRADEA trading strategy that captures the difference in the interest rates earned from being long a currency that pays a relatively high interest rate and short another currency that pays a lower interest rate. For example: NZD/JPY (New Zealand Dollar/Japanese Yen) has been a famous carry trade for some time. NZD is the high yielder and JPY is the low yielder. Traders looking to take advantage of this interest rate differential would buy NZD and sell JPY, or be long NZD/JPY. When NZD/JPY begins to downtrend for an extended period of time, most likely due to a change in interest rates, the carry trade is said to be unwinding.
CASH MARKETThe market in the actual underlying markets on which a derivatives contract is based.
CASH PRICEThe price of a product for instant delivery; i.e., the price of a product at that moment in time.
CBSAbbreviation referring to central banks.
CENTRAL BANKA government or quasi-governmental organization that manages a country's monetary policy. For example, the US central bank is the Federal Reserve and the German central bank is the Bundesbank.
CFDS*A Contract for Difference (or CFD) is a type of derivative that gives exposure to the change in value of an underlying asset (such as an index or equity). It allows traders to leverage their capital (by trading notional amounts far higher than the money in their account) and provides all the benefits of trading securities, without actually owning the product. In practical terms, if you buy a CFD at $10 then sell it at $11, you will receive the $1 difference. Conversely, if you went short on the trade and sold at $10 before buying back at $11, you would pay the $1 difference.
CHARTISTAn individual, also known as a technical trader, who uses charts and graphs and interprets historical data to find trends and predict future movements.
CHOPPYShort-lived price moves with limited follow-through that are not conducive to aggressive trading.
CLEARED FUNDSFunds that are freely available, sent in to settle a trade.
CLEARINGThe process of settling a trade.
CLOSED POSITIONExposure to a financial contract, such as currency, that no longer exists. A position is closed by placing an equal and opposite deal to offset the open position. Once closed, a position is considered squared.
CLOSINGThe process of stopping (closing) a live trade by executing a trade that is the exact opposite of the open trade.
CLOSING PRICEThe price at which a product was traded to close a position. It can also refer to the price of the last transaction in a day trading session.
COLLATERALAn asset given to secure a loan or as a guarantee of performance.
COMMISSIONA fee that is charged for buying or selling a product.
COMMODITY CURRENCIESCurrencies from economies whose exports are heavily based in natural resources, often specifically referring to Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Russia.
COMPONENTSThe dollar pairs that make up the crosses (i.e., EUR/USD + USD/JPY are the components of EUR/JPY). Selling the cross through the components refers to selling the dollar pairs in alternating fashion to create a cross position.
COMPXSymbol for NASDAQ Composite Index.
CONFIRMATIONA document exchanged by counterparts to a transaction that states the terms of said transaction.
CONSOLIDATIONA period of range-bound activity after an extended price move.
CONSTRUCTION SPENDINGMeasures the amount of spending towards new construction, released monthly by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Census Bureau.
CONTAGIONThe tendency of an economic crisis to spread from one market to another.
CONTRACTThe standard unit of forex trading.
CONTRACT NOTEA confirmation sent that outlines the exact details of the trade.
CONTRACT SIZEThe notional number of shares one CFD represents.
CONTROLLED RISKA position which has a limited risk because of a Guaranteed Stop.*
CONVERGENCE OF MASA technical observation that describes moving averages of different periods moving towards each other, which generally forecasts a price consolidation.
CORPORATE ACTIONAn event that changes the equity structure (and usually share price) of a stock. For example, acquisitions, dividends, mergers, splits and spinoffs are all corporate actions.
CORPORATESRefers to corporations in the market for hedging or financial management purposes. Corporates are not always as price sensitive as speculative funds and their interest can be very long term in nature, making corporate interest less valuable to short-term trading.
COUNTER CURRENCYThe second listed currency in a currency pair.
COUNTERPARTYOne of the participants in a financial transaction.
COUNTRY RISKRisk associated with a cross-border transaction, including but not limited to legal and political conditions.
CPIAcronym for Consumer Price Index, a measure of inflation.
CRATERThe market is ready to sell-off hard.
CROSSA pair of currencies that does not include the U.S. dollar.
CROWN CURRENCIESRefers to CAD (Canadian Dollar), Aussie (Australian Dollar), Sterling (British Pound) and Kiwi (New Zealand Dollar) – countries off the Commonwealth.
CTASRefers to commodity trading advisors, speculative traders whose activity can resemble that of short-term hedge funds; frequently refers to the Chicago-based or futures-oriented traders.
CURRENCYAny form of money issued by a government or central bank and used as legal tender and a basis for trade.
CURRENCY PAIRThe two currencies that make up a foreign exchange rate. For example EUR/USD (Euro/U.S. Dollar).
CURRENCY RISKThe probability of an adverse change in exchange rates.
CURRENCY SYMBOLSA three-letter symbol that represents a specific currency. For example, USD (U.S. Dollar).
CURRENT ACCOUNTThe sum of the balance of trade (exports minus imports of goods and services), net factor income (such as interest and dividends) and net transfer payments (such as foreign aid). The balance of trade is typically the key component to the current account.
DAY TRADERSpeculators who take positions in commodities and then liquidate those positions prior to the close of the same trading day.
DAY TRADINGMaking an open and close trade in the same product in one day.
DEALA term that denotes a trade done at the current market price. It is a live trade as opposed to an order.
DEALERAn individual or firm that acts as a principal or counterpart to a transaction. Principals take one side of a position, hoping to earn a spread (profit) by closing out the position in a subsequent trade with another party. In contrast, a broker is an individual or firm that acts as an intermediary, putting together buyers and sellers for a fee or commission.
DEALING SPREADThe difference between the buying and selling price of a contract.
DEFEND A LEVELAction taken by a trader, or group of traders, to prevent a product from trading at a certain price or price zone, usually because they hold a vested interest in doing so, such as a barrier option.
DEFICITA negative balance of trade or payments.
DELISTINGRemoving a stock’s listing on an exchange.
DELIVERYA trade where both sides make and take actual delivery of the product traded.
DELTAThe ratio between the change in price of a product and the change in price of its underlying market.
A monthly survey produced by the DCLG that uses a very large sample of all completed house sales to measure the price trends in the UK real estate market.
DEPRECIATIONThe decrease in value of an asset over time.
DERIVATIVEA financial contract whose value is based on the value of an underlying asset. Some of the most common underlying assets for derivative contracts are indices, equities, commodities and currencies.
DEVALUATIONWhen a pegged currency is allowed to weaken or depreciate based on official actions; the opposite of a revaluation.
DISCOUNT RATEInterest rate that an eligible depository institution is charged to borrow short-term funds directly from the Federal Reserve Bank.
DIVERGENCEIn technical analysis, a situation where price and momentum move in opposite directions, such as prices rising while momentum is falling. Divergence is considered either positive (bullish) or negative (bearish); both kinds of divergence signal major shifts in price direction. Positive/bullish divergence occurs when the price of a security makes a new low while the momentum indicator starts to climb upward. Negative/bearish divergence happens when the price of the security makes a new high, but the indicator fails to do the same and instead moves lower. Divergences frequently occur in extended price moves and frequently resolve with the price reversing direction to follow the momentum indicator.
DIVERGENCE OF MASA technical observation that describes moving averages of different periods moving away from each other, which generally forecasts a price trend.
DIVIDENDThe amount of a company’s earning distributed to its shareholders – usually described as a value per share.
DJIA OR DOWAbbreviation for the Dow Jones Industrial Average or US30.
DOVEDovish refers to data or a policy view that suggests easier monetary policy or lower interest rates. The opposite of hawkish.
DOWNTRENDPrice action consisting of lower lows and lower highs.
DXY$YSymbol for the US Dollar Index.
ECBEuropean Central Bank, the central bank for the countries using the euro.
ECONOMIC INDICATORA government-issued statistic that indicates current economic growth and stability. Common indicators include employment rates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation, retail sales, etc.
END OF DAY ORDER (EOD)An order to buy or sell at a specified price that remains open until the end of the trading day, typically at 5pm/17:00 New York time.
EST/EDTThe time zone of New York City, which stands for United States Eastern Standard Time/Eastern Daylight time.
ESTX50A name for the Euronext 50 index.
EUROThe currency of the Eurozone.
EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION (EMU)An umbrella name for the group of policies that aims to coordinate economic and fiscal policies across EU Member States.
EUROPEAN SESSION07:00 – 16:00 (London).
EUROZONE LABOR COST INDEXMeasures the annualized rate of inflation in the compensation and benefits paid to civilian workers and is seen as a primary driver of overall inflation.
OECD LEADING INDICATORA monthly index produced by the OECD. It measures overall economic health by combining ten leading indicators including average weekly hours, new orders, consumer expectations, housing permits, stock prices and interest rate spreads.
EX-DIVIDENDA share bought in which the buyer forgoes the right to receive the next dividend and instead it is given to the seller.
EXPIRY DATE/PRICEThe precise date and time when an option will expire. The two most common option expiries are 10:00am ET (also referred to as 10:00 NY time or NY cut) and 3:00pm Tokyo time (also referred to as 15:00 Tokyo time or Tokyo cut). These time periods frequently see an increase in activity as option hedges unwind in the spot market.
EXPORTERSCorporations who sell goods internationally, which in turn makes them sellers of foreign currency and buyers of their domestic currency. Frequently refers to major Japanese corporations such as Sony and Toyota, who will be natural sellers of USD/JPY, exchanging dollars received from commercial sales abroad.
EXTENDEDA market that is thought to have traveled too far, too fast.
FACTORY ORDERSThe dollar level of new orders for both durable and nondurable goods. This report is more in depth than the durable goods report which is released earlier in the month.
FEDThe Federal Reserve Bank, the central bank of the United States, or the FOMC (Federal Open Market Committee), the policy-setting committee of the Federal Reserve.
FED OFFICIALSRefers to members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve or regional Federal Reserve Bank Presidents.
FIGURE/THE FIGURERefers to the price quotation of '00' in a price such as 00-03 (1.2600-03) and would be read as 'figure-three.' If someone sells at 1.2600, traders would say 'the figure was given' or 'the figure was hit.
FILLWhen an order has been fully executed.
FILL OR KILLAn order that, if it cannot be filled in its entirety, will be cancelled.
FIRST IN FIRST OUT (FIFO)All positions opened within a particular currency pair are liquidated in the order in which they were originally opened.
FIXOne of approximately five times during the forex trading day when a large amount of currency must be bought or sold to fill a commercial customer’s orders. Typically these times are associated with market volatility. The regular fixes are as follows (all times NY):
5:00am - Frankfurt 6:00am - London 
10:00am - WMHCO (World Market House Company) 
11:00am - WMHCO (World Market House Company) - more important 
8:20am - IMM
8:15am - ECB
FLAT OR FLAT READINGEconomic data readings matching the previous period's levels that are unchanged.
FLAT/SQUAREDealer jargon used to describe a position that has been completely reversed, e.g. you bought $500,000 and then sold $500,000, thereby creating a neutral (flat) position.
FOLLOW-THROUGHFresh buying or selling interest after a directional break of a particular price level. The lack of follow-through usually indicates a directional move will not be sustained and may reverse.
FOMCFederal Open Market Committee, the policy-setting committee of the US Federal Reserve.
FOMC MINUTESWritten record of FOMC policy-setting meetings are released three weeks following a meeting. The minutes provide more insight into the FOMC's deliberations and can generate significant market reactions.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE/FOREX/FXThe simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another. The global market for such transactions is referred to as the forex or FX market.
FORWARDThe pre-specified exchange rate for a foreign exchange contract settling at some agreed future date, based on the interest rate differential between the two currencies involved.
FORWARD POINTSThe pips added to or subtracted from the current exchange rate in order to calculate a forward price.
FRA40A name for the index of the top 40 companies (by market capitalization) listed on the French stock exchange. FRA40 is also known as CAC40.
FTSE 100The name of the UK 100 index.
FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSISThe assessment of all information available on a tradable product to determine its future outlook and therefore predict where the price is heading. Often non-measurable and subjective assessments, as well as quantifiable measurements, are made in fundamental analysis.
FUNDSRefers to hedge fund types active in the market. Also used as another term for the USD/CAD (U.S. Dollar/Canadian Dollar) pair.
FUTUREAn agreement between two parties to execute a transaction at a specified time in the future when the price is agreed in the present.
FUTURES CONTRACTAn obligation to exchange a good or instrument at a set price and specified quantity grade at a future date. The primary difference between a Future and a Forward is that Futures are typically traded over an exchange (Exchange- Traded Contacts - ETC), versus Forwards, which are considered Over The Counter (OTC) contracts. An OTC is any contract NOT traded on an exchange.
G7Group of 7 Nations - United States, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Canada.
G8Group of 8 - G7 nations plus Russia.
GAP/GAPPINGA quick market move in which prices skip several levels without any trades occurring. Gaps usually follow economic data or news announcements.
GEARING (A.K.A LEVERAGE)Gearing refers to trading a notional value that is greater than the amount of capital a trader is required to hold in his or her trading account. It is expressed as a percentage or a fraction.
GER30An index of the top 30 companies (by market capitalization) listed on the German stock exchange – another name for the DAX.
GIVENRefers to a bid being hit or selling interest.
GIVING IT UPA technical level succumbs to a hard-fought battle.
GMT (GREENWICH MEAN TIME)Greenwich Mean Time - The most commonly referred time zone in the forex market. GMT does not change during the year, as opposed to daylight savings/summer time.
GOING LONGThe purchase of a stock, commodity or currency for investment or speculation – with the expectation of the price increasing.
GOING SHORTThe selling of a currency or product not owned by the seller – with the expectation of the price decreasing.
GOLD (GOLD'S RELATIONSHIP)It is commonly accepted that gold moves in the opposite direction of the US dollar. The long-term correlation coefficient is largely negative, but shorter-term correlations are less reliable.
GOLD CERTIFICATEA certificate of ownership that gold investors use to purchase and sell the commodity instead of dealing with transfer and storage of the physical gold itself.
GOLD CONTRACTThe standard unit of trading gold is one contract which is equal to 10 troy ounces.
GOOD FOR DAYAn order that will expire at the end of the day if it is not filled.
GOOD 'TIL CANCELLED ORDER (GTC)An order to buy or sell at a specified price that remains open until filled or until the client cancels.
GOOD 'TIL DATEAn order type that will expire on the date you choose, should it not be filled beforehand.
GREENBACKNickname for the US dollar.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)Total value of a country's output, income or expenditure produced within its physical borders.
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCTGross domestic product plus income earned from investment or work abroad.
GUARANTEED ORDERAn order type that protects a trader against the market gapping. It guarantees to fill your order at the price asked.
GUARANTEED STOPA stop-loss order guaranteed to close your position at a level you dictate, should the market move to or beyond that point. It is guaranteed even if there’s gapping in the market.
GUNNING/GUNNEDRefers to traders pushing to trigger known stops or technical levels in the market.
HANDLEEvery 100 pips in the FX market starting with 000.
HAWK/HAWKISHA country's monetary policymakers are referred to as hawkish when they believe that higher interest rates are needed, usually to combat inflation or restrain rapid economic growth or both.
HEDGEA position or combination of positions that reduces the risk of your primary position.
HIT THE BIDTo sell at the current market bid.
HK50/HKHINames for the Hong Kong Hang Seng index.
ILLIQUIDLittle volume being traded in the market; a lack of liquidity often creates choppy market conditions. 
IMMInternational Monetary Market, the Chicago-based currency futures market, that is part of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
IMM FUTURESA traditional futures contract based on major currencies against the US dollar. IMM futures are traded on the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
IMM SESSION8:00am - 3:00pm New York.
INDUAbbreviation for the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIONMeasures the total value of output produced by manufacturers, mines and utilities. This data tends to react quickly to the expansions and contractions of the business cycle and can act as a leading indicator of employment and personal income data.
INFLATIONAn economic condition whereby prices for consumer goods rise, eroding purchasing power.
INITIAL MARGIN REQUIREMENTThe initial deposit of collateral required to enter into a position.
INTERBANK RATESThe foreign exchange rates which large international banks quote to each other.
INTERESTAdjustments in cash to reflect the effect of owing or receiving the notional amount of equity of a CFD position.
INTERVENTIONAction by a central bank to affect the value of its currency by entering the market. Concerted intervention refers to action by a number of central banks to control exchange rates.
INTRODUCING BROKERA person or corporate entity which introduces accounts to a broker in return for a fee.
INXSymbol for S&P 500 index.
IPOA private company’s initial offer of stock to the public. Short for initial public offering.
ISM MANUFACTURING INDEXAn index that assesses the state of the US manufacturing sector by surveying executives on expectations for future production, new orders, inventories, employment and deliveries. Values over 50 generally indicate an expansion, while values below 50 indicate contraction.
ISM NON-MANUFACTURINGAn index that surveys service sector firms for their outlook, representing the other 80% of the US economy not covered by the ISM Manufacturing Report. Values over 50 generally indicate an expansion, while values below 50 indicate contraction.
Measures the mood of businesses that directly service consumers such as waiters, drivers and beauticians. Readings above 50 generally signal improvements in sentiment.
Measures the total value of new orders placed with machine tool manufacturers. Machine tool orders are a measure of the demand for companies that make machines, a leading indicator of future industrial production. Strong data generally signals that manufacturing is improving and that the economy is in an expansion phase.
JPN225A name for the NEKKEI index.
KEEP THE POWDER DRYTo limit your trades due to inclement trading conditions. In either choppy or extremely narrow markets, it may be better to stay on the sidelines until a clear opportunity arises.
KIWINickname for NZD/USD (New Zealand Dollar/U.S. Dollar).
KNOCK-INSOption strategy that requires the underlying product to trade at a certain price before a previously bought option becomes active. Knock-ins are used to reduce premium costs of the underlying option and can trigger hedging activities once an option is activated.
KNOCK-OUTSOption that nullifies a previously bought option if the underlying product trades a certain level. When a knock-out level is traded, the underlying option ceases to exist and any hedging may have to be unwound.
LAST DEALING DAYThe last day you may trade a particular product.
LAST DEALING TIMEThe last time you may trade a particular product.
LEADING INDICATORSStatistics that are considered to predict future economic activity.
LEVELA price zone or particular price that is significant from a technical standpoint or based on reported orders/option interest.
LEVERAGEAlso known as margin, this is the percentage or fractional increase you can trade from the amount of capital you have available. It allows traders to trade notional values far higher than the capital they have. For example, leverage of 100:1 means you can trade a notional value 100 times greater than the capital in your trading account.*
LEVERAGED NAMESShort-term traders, referring largely to the hedge fund community.
LIABILITYPotential loss, debt or financial obligation.
LIBORThe London Inter-Bank Offered Rate. Banks use LIBOR as a base rate for international lending.
LIMITS/LIMIT ORDERAn order that seeks to buy at lower levels than the current market or sell at higher levels than the current market. A limit order sets restrictions on the maximum price to be paid or the minimum price to be received. As an example, if the current price of USD/JPY is 117.00/05, then a limit order to buy USD would be at a price below the current market, e.g. 116.50.
LIQUID MARKETA market which has sufficient numbers of buyers and sellers for the price to move in a smooth manner.
LIQUIDATIONThe closing of an existing position through the execution of an offsetting transaction.
LONDON SESSION08:00 – 17:00 (London).
LONG POSITIONA position that appreciates in value if market price increases. When the base currency in the pair is bought, the position is said to be long. This position is taken with the expectation that the market will rise.
LONGSTraders who have bought a product.
LOONIENickname for the Canadian dollar or the USD/CAD (U.S. Dollar/Canadian Dollar) currency pair.
LOTA unit to measure the amount of the deal. The value of the deal always corresponds to an integer number of lots.
MACROThe longest-term trader who bases their trade decisions on fundamental analysis. A macro trade’s holding period can last anywhere from around six months to multiple years.
MANUFACTURING PRODUCTIONMeasures the total output of the manufacturing aspect of the Industrial Production figures. This data only measures the 13 sub-sectors that relate directly to manufacturing. Manufacturing makes up approximately 80% of total Industrial Production.
MARGIN CALLA request from a broker or dealer for additional funds or other collateral on a position that has moved against the customer.
MARKET MAKERA dealer who regularly quotes both bid and ask prices and is ready to make a two-sided market for any financial product.
MARKET ORDERAn order to buy or sell at the current price.
MARKET-TO-MARKETProcess of re-evaluating all open positions in light of current market prices. These new values then determine margin requirements.
MATURITYThe date of settlement or expiry of a financial product.
MEDLEY REPORTRefers to Medley Global Advisors, a market consultancy that maintains close contacts with central bank and government officials around the world. Their reports can frequently move the currency market as they purport to have inside information from policy makers. The accuracy of the reports has fluctuated over time, but the market still pays attention to them in the short-run.
MODELSSynonymous with black box. Systems that automatically buy and sell based on technical analysis or other quantitative algorithms.
MOMAbbreviation for month-over-month, which is the change in a data series relative to the prior month's level.
MOMENTUMA series of technical studies (e.g. RSI, MACD, Stochastics, Momentum) that assesses the rate of change in prices.
MOMENTUM PLAYERSTraders who align themselves with an intra-day trend that attempts to grab 50-100 pips.
NAS100An abbreviation for the NASDAQ 100 index.
NET POSITIONThe amount of currency bought or sold which has not yet been offset by opposite transactions.
NEW YORK SESSION8:00am – 5:00pm (New York time).
NO TOUCHAn option that pays a fixed amount to the holder if the market never touches the predetermined Barrier Level.
NYA.XSymbol for NYSE Composite index.
OFFER/ASK PRICEThe price at which the market is prepared to sell a product. Prices are quoted two-way as Bid/Offer. The Offer price is also known as the Ask. The Ask represents the price at which a trader can buy the base currency, which is shown to the right in a currency pair. For example, in the quote USD/CHF 1.4527/32, the base currency is USD, and the ask price is 1.4532, meaning you can buy one US dollar for 1.4532 Swiss francs. 

In CFD trading, the Ask represents the price a trader can buy the product. For example, in the quote for UK OIL 111.13/111.16, the product quoted is UK OIL and the ask price is £111.16 for one unit of the underlying market.*
OFFEREDIf a market is said to be trading offered, it means a pair is attracting heavy selling interest, or offers.
OFFSETTING TRANSACTIONA trade that cancels or offsets some or all of the market risk of an open position.
ON TOPAttempting to sell at the current market order price.
A designation for two orders whereby if one part of the two orders is executed, then the other is automatically cancelled.
ONE TOUCHAn option that pays a fixed amount to the holder if the market touches the predetermined Barrier Level.
OPEN ORDERAn order that will be executed when a market moves to its designated price. Normally associated with good 'til cancelled orders.
OPEN POSITIONAn active trade with corresponding unrealized P&L, which has not been offset by an equal and opposite deal.
OPTIONA derivative which gives the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a product at a specific price before a specified date.
ORDERAn instruction to execute a trade.
ORDER BOOKA system used to show market depth of traders willing to buy and sell at prices beyond the best available.
OVER THE COUNTER (OTC)Used to describe any transaction that is not conducted via an exchange.
OVERNIGHT POSITIONA trade that remains open until the next business day.
PAIDRefers to the offer side of the market dealing.
PAIRThe forex quoting convention of matching one currency against the other.
PANELEDA very heavy round of selling.
PARABOLICA market that moves a great distance in a very short period of time, frequently moving in an accelerating fashion that resembles one half of a parabola. Parabolic moves can be either up or down.
PARTIAL FILLWhen only part of an order has been executed.
PATIENTWaiting for certain levels or news events to hit the market before entering a position.
PERSONAL INCOMEMeasures an individual’s total annual gross earnings from wages, business enterprises and various investments. Personal income is the key to personal spending, which accounts for 2/3 of GDP in the major economies.
PIPSThe smallest unit of price for any foreign currency, pips refer to digits added to or subtracted from the fourth decimal place, i.e. 0.0001.
POLITICAL RISKExposure to changes in governmental policy which may have an adverse effect on an investor's position.
PORTFOLIOA collection of investments owned by an entity.
POSITIONThe net total holdings of a given product.
PREMIUMThe amount by which the forward or futures price exceeds the spot price.
PRICE TRANSPARENCYDescribes quotes to which every market participant has equal access.
PROFITThe difference between the cost price and the sale price, when the sale price is higher than the cost price.
PULLBACKThe tendency of a trending market to retrace a portion of the gains before continuing in the same direction.
PURCHASING MANAGERS INDEX (PMI)An economic indicator which indicates the performance of manufacturing companies within a country.
Measures the outlook of purchasing managers in the service sector. Such managers are surveyed on a number of subjects including employment, production, new orders, supplier deliveries and inventories. Readings above 50 generally indicate expansion, while readings below 50 suggest economic contraction.
PUT OPTIONA product which gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to sell it at a specified price.
QUANTITATIVE EASINGWhen a central bank injects money into an economy with the aim of stimulating growth.
QUARTERLY CFDSA type of future with expiry dates every three months (once per quarter).*
QUOTEAn indicative market price, normally used for information purposes only.
RALLYA recovery in price after a period of decline.
RANGEWhen a price is trading between a defined high and low, moving within these two boundaries without breaking out from them.
RATEThe price of one currency in terms of another, typically used for dealing purposes.
RBAReserve Bank of Australia, the central bank of Australia.
RBNZReserve Bank of New Zealand, the central bank of New Zealand.
REAL MONEYTraders of significant size including pension funds, asset managers, insurance companies, etc. They are viewed as indicators of major long-term market interest, as opposed to shorter-term, intra-day speculators.
REALIZED PROFIT/LOSSThe amount of money you have made or lost when a position has been closed.
RESISTENCE LEVELA price that may act as a ceiling. The opposite of support.
RETAIL INVESTORAn individual investor who trades with money from personal wealth, rather than on behalf of an institution.
RETAIL SALESMeasures the monthly retail sales of all goods and services sold by retailers based on a sampling of different types and sizes. This data provides a look into consumer spending behavior, which is a key determinant of growth in all major economies.
REVALUATIONWhen a pegged currency is allowed to strengthen or rise as a result of official actions; the opposite of a devaluation.
RIGHTS ISSUEA form of corporate action where shareholders are given rights to purchase more stock. Normally issued by companies in an attempt to raise capital.
RISKExposure to uncertain change, most often used with a negative connotation of adverse change.
RISK MANAGEMENTThe employment of financial analysis and trading techniques to reduce and/or control exposure to various types of risk.
ROLLOVERA rollover is the simultaneous closing of an open position for today's value date and the opening of the same position for the next day's value date at a price reflecting the interest rate differential between the two currencies. 

In the spot forex market, trades must be settled in two business days. For example, if a trader sells 100,000 Euros on Tuesday, then the trader must deliver 100,000 Euros on Thursday, unless the position is rolled over. As a service to customers, all open forex positions at the end of the day (5:00 PM New York time) are automatically rolled over to the next settlement date. The rollover adjustment is simply the accounting of the cost-of-carry on a day-to-day basis. Learn more about's rollover policy
ROUND TRIPA trade that has been opened and subsequently closed by an equal and opposite deal.
RUNNING PROFIT/LOSSAn indicator of the status of your open positions; that is, unrealized money that you would gain or lose should you close all your open positions at that point in time.
RUTSymbol for Russell 2000 index.
SECThe Securities and Exchange Commission.
SECTORA group of securities that operate in a similar industry.
SELLTaking a short position in expectation that the market is going to go down.
SETTLEMENTThe process by which a trade is entered into the books, recording the counterparts to a transaction. The settlement of currency trades may or may not involve the actual physical exchange of one currency for another.
SHGA.XSymbol for the Shanghai A index.
SHORT POSITIONAn investment position that benefits from a decline in market price. When the base currency in the pair is sold, the position is said to be short.
SHORT SQUEEZEA situation in which traders are heavily positioned on the short side and a market catalyst causes them to cover (buy) in a hurry, causing a sharp price increase.
SHORT-COVERINGAfter a decline, traders who earlier went short begin buying back.
SHORTSTraders who have sold, or shorted, a product, or those who are bearish on the market.
SIDELINES, SIT ON HANDSTraders staying out of the markets due to directionless, choppy or unclear market conditions are said to be on the sidelines or sitting on their hands.
SIMPLE MOVING AVERAGE SMAA simple average of a pre-defined number of price bars. For example, a 50 period daily chart SMA is the average closing price of the previous 50 daily closing bars. Any time interval can be applied.
SLIPPAGEThe difference between the price that was requested and the price obtained typically due to changing market conditions.
SLIPPERYA term used when the market feels like it is ready for a quick move in any direction.
SLOPPYChoppy trading conditions that lack any meaningful trend and/or follow-through.
SNBSwiss National Bank, the central bank of Switzerland.
SOVEREIGN NAMESRefers to central banks active in the spot market.
SPOT MARKETA market whereby products are traded at their market price for immediate exchange.
SPOT PRICEThe current market price. Settlement of spot transactions usually occurs within two business days.
SPOT TRADEThe purchase or sale of a product for immediate delivery (as opposed to a date in the future). Spot contracts are typically settled electronically.
SPREADThe difference between the bid and offer prices.
SPX500A name for the S&P index.
SQUAREPurchase and sales are in balance and thus the dealer has no open position.
STERLINGA nickname for the British pound or the GBP/USD (Great British Pound/U.S. Dollar) currency pair.
STOCK EXCHANGEA market on which securities are traded.
STOCK INDEXThe combined price of a group of stocks - expressed against a base number - to allow assessment of how the group of companies is performing relative to the past.
STOP ENTRY ORDERThis is an order placed to buy above the current price, or to sell below the current price. These orders are useful if you believe the market is heading in one direction and you have a target entry price.
STOP LOSS ORDERThis is an order placed to sell below the current price (to close a long position), or to buy above the current price (to close a short position). Stop loss orders are an important risk management tool. By setting stop loss orders against open positions you can limit your potential downside should the market move against you. Remember that stop orders do not guarantee your execution price – a stop order is triggered once the stop level is reached, and will be executed at the next available price.
STOP ORDERA stop order is an order to buy or sell once a pre-defined price is reached. When the price is reached, the stop order becomes a market order and is executed at the best available price. It is important to remember that stop orders can be affected by market gaps and slippage, and will not necessarily be executed at the stop level if the market does not trade at this price. A stop order will be filled at the next available price once the stop level has been reached. Placing contingent orders may not necessarily limit your losses.
STOP-LOSS HUNTINGWhen a market seems to be reaching for a certain level that is believed to be heavy with stops. If stops are triggered, then the price will often jump through the level as a flood of stop-loss orders are triggered.
STOPS BUILDINGRefers to stop-loss orders building up; the accumulation of stop-loss orders to buy above the market in an upmove, or to sell below the market in a downmove.
SUPPLY & DEMANDSupply and demand, is the relationship between the quantity of a commodity that producers wish to sell at various prices and the quantity that consumers wish to buy.
STRIKE PRICEThe defined price at which the holder of an option can buy or sell the product.
SUPPORT LEVELSA technique used in technical analysis that indicates a specific price ceiling and floor at which a given exchange rate will automatically correct itself. Opposite of resistance.
SUSPENDED TRADINGA temporary halt in the trading of a product.
SWAPA currency swap is the simultaneous sale and purchase of the same amount of a given currency at a forward exchange rate.
SWISSIEThe nickname for the Swiss franc or the USD/CHF (U.S. Dollar/Swiss Franc) currency pair.
T/PStands for “take profit.” Refers to limit orders that look to sell above the level that was bought, or buy back below the level that was sold.
TAKEOVERAssuming control of a company by buying its stock.
TECHNICAL ANALYSISThe process by which charts of past price patterns are studied for clues as to the direction of future price movements.
TECHNICIANS/TECHSTraders who base their trading decisions on technical or charts analysis.
TEN (10) YRUS government-issued debt which is repayable in ten years. For example, a US 10-year note.
THINA illiquid, slippery or choppy market environment. A light-volume market that produces erratic trading conditions.
THIRTY (30) YRUK government-issued debt which is repayable in 30 years. For example, a UK 30-year gilt.
TICK (SIZE)A minimum change in price, up or down.
TIME TO MATURITYThe time remaining until a contract expires.
TOKYO SESSION09:00 – 18:00 (Tokyo).
TOMORROW NEXT (TOM/NEXT)Simultaneous buying and selling of a currency for delivery the following day.
TRADE BALANCEMeasures the difference in value between imported and exported goods and services. Nations with trade surpluses (exports greater than imports), such as Japan, tend to see their currencies appreciate, while countries with trade deficits (imports greater than exports), such as the US, tend to see their currencies weaken.
TRADE SIZEThe number of units of product in a contract or lot.
TRADING BIDA pair is acting strong and/or moving higher; bids keep entering the market and pushing prices up.
TRADING HALTA postponement to trading that is not a suspension from trading.
TRADING HEAVYA market that feels like it wants to move lower, usually associated with an offered market that will not rally despite buying attempts.
TRADING OFFEREDA pair is acting weak and/or moving lower, and offers to sell keep coming into the market.
TRADING RANGEThe range between the highest and lowest price of a stock usually expressed with reference to a period of time. For example: 52-week trading range.
TRAILING STOPA trailing stop allows a trade to continue to gain in value when the market price moves in a favorable direction, but automatically closes the trade if the market price suddenly moves in an unfavorable direction by a specified distance. Placing contingent orders may not necessarily limit your losses.
TRANSACTION COSTThe cost of buying or selling a financial product.
TRANSACTION DATEThe date on which a trade occurs.
TRENDPrice movement that produces a net change in value. An uptrend is identified by higher highs and higher lows. A downtrend is identified by lower highs and lower lows.
TURNOVERThe total money value or volume of all executed transactions in a given time period.
TWO-WAY PRICEWhen both a bid and offer rate is quoted for a forex transaction.
TYO10Symbol for CBOE 10-Year Treasury Yield Index.
UGLYDescribing unforgiving market conditions that can be violent and quick.
UK AVERAGE EARNINGS INCLUDING BONUS/EXCLUDING BONUSMeasures the average wage including/excluding bonuses paid to employees. This is measured quarter-on-quarter (QoQ) from the previous year.
UK CLAIMANT COUNT RATEMeasures the number of people claiming unemployment benefits. The claimant count figures tend to be lower than the unemployment data since not all of the unemployed are eligible for benefits.
UK HBOS HOUSE PRICE INDEXMeasures the relative level of UK house prices for an indication of trends in the UK real estate sector and their implication for the overall economic outlook. This index is the longest monthly data series of any UK housing index, published by the largest UK mortgage lender (Halifax Building Society/Bank of Scotland).
UK JOBLESS CLAIMS CHANGEMeasures the change in the number of people claiming unemployment benefits over the previous month.
UK MANUAL UNIT WAGE LOSSMeasures the change in total labor cost expended in the production of one unit of output.
UK OIL*A name for Brent Crude Oil.
UK PRODUCERS PRICE INDEX INPUTMeasures the rate of inflation experienced by manufacturers when purchasing materials and services. This data is closely scrutinized since it can be a leading indicator of consumer inflation.
UK PRODUCERS PRICE INDEX OUTPUTMeasures the rate of inflation experienced by manufacturers when selling goods and services.
UK100A name for the FTSE 100 index.
UNDERLYINGThe actual traded market from where the price of a product is derived.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATEMeasures the total workforce that is unemployed and actively seeking employment, measured as a percentage of the labor force.
Polls 500 US households each month. The report is issued in a preliminary version mid-month and a final version at the end of the month. Questions revolve around individuals’ attitudes about the US economy. Consumer sentiment is viewed as a proxy for the strength of consumer spending.
UNREALIZED GAIN/LOSSThe theoretical gain or loss on open positions valued at current market rates, as determined by the broker in its sole discretion. Unrealized gains/losses become profits/losses when the position is closed.
UPTICKA new price quote at a price higher than the preceding quote.
UPTICK RULEIn the US, a regulation whereby a security may not be sold short unless the last trade prior to the short sale was at a price lower than the price at which the short sale is executed.
US OILA name for WTI Crude Oil.
US PRIME RATEThe interest rate at which US banks will lend to their prime corporate customers.
US30A name for the Dow Jones index.
VALUE DATEAlso known as the maturity date, it is the date on which counterparts to a financial transaction agree to settle their respective obligations, i.e., exchanging payments. For spot currency transactions, the value date is normally two business days forward.
VARIATION MARGINFunds traders must hold in their accounts to have the required margin necessary to cope with market fluctuations.
VIX OR VOLATILITY INDEXShows the market's expectation of 30-day volatility. It is constructed using the implied volatilities of a wide range of S&P 500 index options. The VIX is a widely used measure of market risk and is often referred to as the "investor fear gauge."
VOLATILITYReferring to active markets that often present trade opportunities.
WEDGE CHART PATTERNChart formation that shows a narrowing price range over time, where price highs in an ascending wedge decrease incrementally, or in a descending wedge, price declines are incrementally smaller. Ascending wedges typically conclude with a downside breakout and descending wedges typically terminate with upside breakouts.
WHIPSAWSlang for a highly volatile market where a sharp price movement is quickly followed by a sharp reversal.
WHOLESALE PRICESMeasures the changes in prices paid by retailers for finished goods. Inflationary pressures typically show earlier than the headline retail.
WORKING ORDERWhere a limit order has been requested but not yet filled.
WSJAcronym for The Wall Street Journal.
XAG/USDSymbol for Silver Index.
XAU/USDSymbol for Gold Index.
XAX.XSymbol for AMEX Composite Index.
YARDA billion units.
YIELDThe percentage return from an investment.
YOYAbbreviation for year over year.
YUANThe yuan is the base unit of currency in China. The renminbi is the name of the currency in China, where the Yuan is the base unit.
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